I. What is self-handicapping?
A. Definition--"An attributional strategy for protecting one's self-esteem by calling attention to the existence of of external causes for potential failure."
B. Why "attributional"? Because it involves setting up facilitative cues (for failure) for others to use in the discounting process.
C. Why technique can't lose? Because if you succeed, you succeed in the face of inhibitory cues-->get augmentation effects for success when you set up an inhibitory cue in advance.
II. What types of self-handicapping are there? A. Anticipatory excuse making. B. Self-sabotage. C. Behavioral other-enhancement.
III. Do people really self-handicap? Who and When? A. When or under what conditions? 1. Public more than private--to benefit public self- presentation. 2. when faced with unexpected or incomprehensible success. 3. when anxiety is high. 4. when there is a high level of task importance.
B. Who? and in what ways? 1. persons high in Public self-consciousness more than those low in public SC. 2. males more than females, especially if direct social comparison is possible. --males use drugs and alcohol more. --females tend to report physical symptoms more.
3. Self-esteem differences. --high SE persons for self-enhancement goals. --low SE persons for self-protection goals. --more research needed to verify this last point.