TROILUS AND CRISEYDE--CRISEYDE
[Cross-references included at the bottom of the page]
762. apROBERTS, ROBERT P. "The Central Episode of Chaucer's Troilus." PMLA 77 (1962):373-85.
Examines Criseyde's motives in surrendering to Troilus to demonstrate how these motives lend the character the "very feel of life." Chaucer's lack of emphasis on sexual desire is consistent with his goal of presenting "perfect human love."
763. apROBERTS, ROBERT P. "The Growth of Criseyde's Love." In Medieval Studies Conference, Aachen, 1983: Language and Literature. Edited by Wolf-Dietrich Bald and Horst Weinstock. Bamberger Beitrage zur Englischen Sprachwissenschaft, no. 15. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1984, pp. 131-41.
Criticizes several "sexpot" readings of Troilus and Criseyde and traces the gradual development of Criseyde's attraction to Troilus from her first sight of him to the consummation scene where her resistence to love fails and she accepts her emotions. Her resistence results from the value she places on love and her reluctance to jeopardize her honor.
764. BECHTEL, ROBERT B. "The Problem of Criseyde's Character." Susquehanna University Studies 7, no. 2 (1963):109-18.
Surveys early critical assessments of Criseyde--as betrayer, as instrument of fate, as fearful--and concludes that the character is a vehicle through whom Chaucer expresses the joy of human love and its transitoriness.
765. BURNLEY, J.D. "Criseyde's Heart and Weakness of Women: An Essay in Lexical Interpretation." Studia Neophilologica 54 (1982):25-38.
Chaucer's description of Criseyde includes traditional, scholastic connotations of feminine mutability in the phrases "slydyng of corage" and "tendre herte"; the physiognomic detail of straight eyebrows indicates the same.
766. CORRIGAN, MATTHEW. "Chaucer's Failure With Women: The Inadequacy of Criseyde." Western Humanities Review 23 (1969):107-20.
Criticizes Chaucer's depictions of Alison of Bath and, especially, Criseyde as passive reflections of the prejudices of his age. The narrator of Troilus and Criseyde obscures our direct apprehension of Criseyde who is essentially "a magnificent exemplum of medieval woman."
767. DAVID, ALFRED. "Chaucerian Comedy and Criseyde." In Essays on "Troilus and Criseyde". Edited by Mary Salu. Chaucer Studies, no. 3. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer; Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1979, pp. 90-104.
Sets Criseyde's comic pattern of cyclical change against Troilus's single, tragic ride on Fortune's wheel, demonstrating how she is "constant in her mutability" and how, through her, Chaucer affirms the important but limited validity of worldly survival, anticipating the Wife of Bath.
768. DONALDSON, E. TALBOT. "Briseis, Briseida, Criseyde, Cresseid, Cressid: Progress of a Heroine." In Chaucerian Problems and Perspectives: Essays Presented to Paul E. Beichner, C.S.C. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1979, pp. 3-12.
Demonstrates that enduring attributes besides infidelity complicate the Criseyde character developed from Homer to Skakespeare. Chaucer's figure combines deep passion with the attractiveness of Dares's Briseis and the insecurity of Benoit's Briseida. Although such passion is also evident in Henryson's and Shakespeare's depictions, only Shakespeare reflects Chaucer feminist awareness.
769. GROSS, LAILA. "The Two Wooings of Criseyde." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 74 (1973):113-25.
Demonstrates the symmetry of Pandarus's wooing of Criseyde for Troilus and Diomedes wooing of her for himself, showing how the approaches of the two wooers are similar and how Criseyde's reaction to them reflects her consistency of character.
770. HOWARD, DONALD R. "Experience, Language, and Consciousness: Troilus and Crisyede, II, 596-931." In Medieval Literature and Folklore Studies: Essays in Honor of Francis Lee Utley. Edited by Jerome Mandel and Bruce A. Rosenberg. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1970, pp. 173-92. Revised slightly in Chaucer's "Troilus": Essays in Criticism, ed. by Stephen A. Barney (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1980), pp. 159-80.
Examines the process of Criseyde's falling in love with Troilus as a poetic tour de force of the representation of consciousness. Chaucer enables his audience to share Criseyde's abstract thoughts, and to participate with her visually (observing Troilus), auricularly (Antigone's song), and subconsciously (her dream), thereby creating a full experience of consciousness through language.
771. MIESZKOWSKI, GRETCHEN. "The Reputation of Criseyde: 1155- 1500." Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 43 (1971):71-153. Reprinted separately (Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1971).
Documents the early, negative understanding of Criseyde as a fickle women, even a seductress, and assesses the effect of this reputation upon the meaning of Troilus and Criseyde. Benoit de Sainte-Maure's Roman de Troie, Guido de Columnis's Historia Destructionis Troiae and Boccaccio's Filostrato define Criseyde's negative reputation, one reflected in other versions of the tale and in allusions to the character by other poets, such as John Gower. Chaucer manipulates this reputation from the start of his poem, creating a tension between the audience's attitude toward the character and the narrator's positive opinion, effectively detaching readers from the narrator even while engaging them in the love story. Fifteenth-century depictions of Criseyde attest to contemporary sensitivity to Chaucer's sophisticated narrative techniques.
772. ROWLAND, BERYL. "Chaucer's Speaking Voice and Its Effects on His Listeners' Perception of Criseyde." English Studies in Canada 7 (1981):129-40.
Evokes a sense of Chaucer performing his poetry by citing classical and medieval oratorical and rhetorical treatises, and suggests that the narrator's positive opinion of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde would have been emphatic and persuasive in performance.
773. SCHIBANOFF, SUSAN. "Criseyde's 'Impossible' Aubes." JEGP 76 (1977):326-33.
Observes the presence of adynata, or listed impossibilities, in Criseyde's ironic dawn-songs, suggesting that they derived from anti-feminist songs of female deception and therefore foreshadow Criseyde's infidelity to Troilus.
774. STOKES, M. "The Moon in Leo in Book V of Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Review 17 (1982)116-29.
Explains the astrological allegory of Criseyde's promise to return to Troilus before the moon leaves Leo, associating Criseyde with the changeable moon and Trolius with the royal lion. Identifies several techniques that distance the audience from Book V of Troilus and Criseyde, and compares its astral allegory with that of Complaint of Mars.
775. TAYLOR, WILLENE P. "Supposed Antifeminism in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Xavier University Studies 9, no. 2 (1970):1-18.
Explores the relationship between Troilus and Criseyde and Legend of Good Women, reading the latter as a mock penance for the former. Troilus is not anti-feminist, even though the narrator's changing view of Criseyde raises the possibility. The apparent apology to the God of Love in the Legend is a "mock palinode" to Troilus, an example of Chaucer's humane, non-judgmental comedy.
See also entries 54, 79, 136, 171, 706, 709-12, 714, 723-24, 793, 796, 909.
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