[Cross-references included at the bottom of the page]


754. BRADDY, HALDEEN. "Chaucer's Playful Pandarus." Southern Folklore Quarterly 34 (1970):71-81.

Argues that Pandarus and Criseyde share incest in Troilus and Criseyde. A pun on the meaning of "deth" as coition, first found here in English, and several suggestive passages imply the relationship.

755. DENOMY, ALEXANDER J. "The Two Moralities of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde." Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3d series, 44, no. 2 (1950):35-46. Reprinted in Chaucer Criticism, Volume II: "Troilus and Criseyde" & The Minor Poems, ed. by Richard J. Schoeck and Jerome Taylor (Notre Dame Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1961), pp. 147-59.

Contrasts Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde and Andreas Capellanus's De amore, defining irresistability and unique ennobling power as the essential characteristics of courtly love. Chaucer repudiates such love in Troilus by emphasizing its incompatibility with Christianity.

756. HEIDTMANN, PETER. "Sex and Salvation in Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Review 2 (1968):246-53.

Questions the traditional polarization of caritas and cupiditas by arguing that Troilus's ascent at the end of Troilus and Criseyde shows that earthly love has ennobled the lover and made him worthy of the heavens, a realization of heavenly love.

757. HELTERMAN, JEFFREY. "Masks of Love in Troilus and Criseyde." Comparative Literature 26 (1974):14-31.

Explores the influence of Italian literary presentations of love on Troilus and Criseyde by paralleling Troilus's love with Dante's in Vita Nuova and detailing the influence of Petrach's sonnets to Laura on Chaucer's language and imagery.

758. HOWARD, DONALD R. "Courtly Love and the Lust of the Flesh: Troilus and Criseyde." In The Three Temptations: Medieval Man in Search of the World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966, pp. 76-160.

Interprets Troilus and Criseyde as a supreme expression of the courtly love tradition which presents human love as separate from Christian ideals while simultaneously reflecting these ideals in an earthly realm. Through the pre-Christian setting of the poem, Chaucer represents love as a moral act that evokes Christian awareness without being an allegory of sin. Explicitly exploring the tension between fortune and love, the poem implicitly contrasts pagan and Christian love. In this way, Troilus extends an historically important "double truth" to the expression of courtly love and intensifies both the moral and the romantic elements beyond its immediate source, Boccaccio's Filostrato.

759. KIRBY, THOMAS. Chaucer's "Troilus": A Study in Courtly Love. Louisiana State University Studies, no. 40. University: Louisiana State University Press, 1940. Reprint. Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1959, 346 pp.

Examines the nature and function of courtly love in Troilus and Criseyde, surveying the backgrounds of the courtly love tradition, comparing Troilus to Boccaccio's Filostrato, and contrasting the characterizations of the major actors in the two poems. Traces the roots of courtly love to Ovid, and explores the tradition of love in troubadour lyrics, Chretien de Troyes, Andreas Capellanus, and Italian dolce stil nuovo. Describes Filostrato as a "typical courtly love document," and assesses Chaucer's intensification of the tradition, particularly through the importance of Pandarus, the complexity of Criseyde, and the aggressiveness of Diomede in contrast to the passive fatalism of Troilus. In comparsion to Filostrato, Troilus emphasizes the ennobling, transcendant effects of love.

760. MAGUIRE, JOHN B. "The Clandestine Marriage of Troilus and Criseyde." Chaucer Review 8 (1974):262-78.

Describes the nature of medieval "clandestine" marriage, valid and fairly common in Chaucer's day, although not performed in church, arguing that the relationship between Troilus and Criseyde is such a marriage. The suggestions of clandestine marriage in Troilus and Criseyde include Chaucer's focus on marital "trouthe," the attitude and words of Pandarus, and several of the poet's modifications of Boccaccio's Filostrato. Compare Kelly (entry 235).

761. WOOD, CHAUNCEY. The Elements of Chaucer's "Troilus". Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1984, 216 pp.

Focuses upon the aspects of Troilus and Criseyde which criticize erotic love, tracing the poem's transformations of Boccaccio's Filostrato and assessing external and internal evidence of attitudes towards love and sexuality. Contemporary negative opinions of love, especially those of John Gower to whom Troilus is dedicated, clarify the proper subordination of human love to human will and the significance of Troilus's debasement. Venus's domination of the action--more evident than in Filostrato--indicates the sexual nature of the lovers' attraction, while traditional recurrent images associated with the three major characters underscore the immorality of such love.

See also entries 159, 229, 232, 235, 238, 697, 716, 746, 785. For courtly love and its tradition: 233-34, 236-37, 689, 700, 750, 778; for spiritual love: 751, 762, 779-80.

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