TROILUS AND CRISEYDE--PANDARUS
[Cross-references included at the bottom of the page]
785. CARTON, EVAN. "Complicity and Responsibility in Pandarus' Bed and Chaucer's Art." PMLA 94 (1979):47-61.
Argues that the involvement of Pandarus, the narrator, and the reader determines the plot of Troilus and Criseyde. Pandarus is a paradigm of involvement in his overt manipulation of the lovers. The narrator's intrusions shape the tale and its emphases, and engage the reader in imagining implied actions. Pandarus's sexual encounter with Criseyde (III, 1555-82) brings together these levels of "complicity."
786. COOK, RICHARD G. "Chaucer's Pandarus and the Medieval Ideal of Friendship." JEGP: Journal of English and Germanic Phnilology 69 (1970):407-24.
Assesses Pandarus's actions in Troilus and Criseyde in light of medieval ideals of friendship and Boccaccio's Pandaro. Pandarus's protestations of friendship for Troilus conflict with his devious actions to represent both the "world's notion of what a friend is" and the "moralist's notion" of what he is not--an example of Chaucer's double vision.
787. ROBBIE, MAY G. "Three-Faced Pandarus." California English Journal 3, no. 1 (1967):47-54.
Praises Pandarus as courtly intermediary, friend to Troilus and kinsman to Criseyde, arguing that he fulfills traditional expectations in each role and suggesting that he does so with good intent.
788. ROWLAND, BERYL. "Pandarus and the Fate of Tantalus." Orbis Litterarum 24 (1969):3-15.
Psychoanalyzes Pandarus as a hermaphrodite who derives double, vicarious sexual satisfaction from contributing to the relationship between Troilus and Criseyde.
789. RUDAT, WOLFGANG. "Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde: The Narrator-Reader's Complicity." American Imago 40 (1983):103-13.
Psychoanalyzes Pandarus's motives in aiding Troilus to gain Criseyde's love, arguing that the affair serves Pandarus as "vicarious sexual indulgence." Traces suggestions of incest and references to Oedipus, and dicusses images of sexual "death" in Pandarus's teasing of Criseyde.
790. RUTHERFORD, CHARLES S. "Pandarus as Lover: '*A Joly Wo' or 'Loves Shotes Keene'?" Annuale Mediaevale 13 (1972):5- 13.
Characterizes Pandarus as a role-player whose one unmasked moment is Troilus and Criseyde--his love lament early in Book II--preserves Troilus from appearing absurd. Pandarus's private moment clarifies the power of love and helps us to accept Troilus's debilitation without ridicule.
See also entries, 131, 133, 706, 710, 714, 744, 747, 779.
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