[Cross-references included at the bottom of the page]


455. CARRUTHERS, MARY [J]. "Letter and Gloss in the Friar's and Summoner's Tales." Journal of Narrative Technique 2 (1972):208-14.

Identifies the thematic importance of "glossing" (exegetical interpretation) for a reading of the Friar's and Summoner's tales as a coherent pair. The over- ingenious Friar "is revealed" when he ignores literal meanings, while the too-literal Summoner finds no spiritual meaning at all. Their tales extend the concern with glossing begun in the Wife of Bath's Prologue.

456. HAHN, THOMAS, and KAEUPER, RICHRAD W. "Text and Context: Chaucer's Friar's Tale." Studies in the Age of Chaucer 5 (1983):67-101.

Explores the interchange between fiction and history, demonstrating how historical records corroborate Chaucer's depiction of archdeaconate power in Friar's Tale, and how the satire of the tale indicates contemporary attitudes towards this power and its abuse by summoners.

457. HENNEDY, HUGH L. "The Friar's Summoner's Dilemma." Chaucer Review 5 (1971):213-17.

Clarifies the narrative cleverness of Chaucer's Friar's Tale, evident in the no-escape dilemma of the summoner: by the old woman's curse, he is damned if he fails to repent, and by his own curse and cursed life, he is doomed if he repents and abandons his demonic companion.

458. LENAGHAN, R.T. "The Irony of the Friar's Tale." Chaucer Review 7 (1973):281-94.

Observes the unusual critical agreement about the double-edged irony of the Friar's Tale in its context. The Friar ridicules the Summoner through the tale, but, ironically, he catches himself "in his own net" when he abuses the intention of his exemplum.

459. MURTAUGH, DANIEL M. "Riming Justice in the Friar's Tale." Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 74 (1973):107-12.

Traces a pattern of rhyme in Chaucer's Friar's Tale that parallels the tale's theme: "entente" rhymes sequentially with "rente," "hente," and "repente," ironically underscoring the distortion of moral intention and its consequences.

460. NICHOLSON, PETER. "Analogues of Chaucer's Friar's Tale." English Language Notes 17, no. 2 (1979-80):93-98.

Observes parallels of detail, character, and event among three analogous versions of the same tale: Chaucer's Friar's Tale, an exemplum by Robert Rypen, and one in British Library Mansucript Cotton Cleopatra D VIII, arguing that the three indicate a specifically English version of the story from which Chaucer derived his version.

461. RICHARDSON, JANETTE. "Friar and Summoner, The Art of Balance." Chaucer Review 9 (1975):227-36.

Compares the portraits and tales of the Friar and Summoner to demonstrate their superficial contrast and "profound" similarity. Analyzes the structural balance of their tales, and suggests that the characters reflect a sort of psychological projection which depicts the teller's own limitations in his attempt to satirize the other.

462. STROUD, T.A. "Chaucer's Friar as Narrator." Chaucer Review 8 (1973):65-69.

Argues that the deviations of Chaucer's Friar's Tale from its analogues characterize the Friar as a pointedly "literal-minded narrator."

463. SZITTYA, PENN R. "The Green Yeoman as Loathly Hag: The Friar's Parody of the Wife of Bath's Tale." PMLA 90 (1975):386-94.

Argues that the three tales of Fragment III of Canterbury Tales (Wife of Bath, Friar, Summoner) form a pattern similar to that of Fragment I (Knight, Miller, Reeve): an idealized narrative is followed by squabbling and parody of the ideal. Like the Miller, the Friar parodies the romantic idealism of his predecessor's tale while provoking the following teller. The parody is evident in verbal echoes, structural parallels, and thematic contrasts.

464. WILLIAMS, ARNOLD. "Chaucer and the Friars." Speculum 28 (1953):499-513. Reprinted in Chaucer Criticism, Volume I: The "Canterbury Tales," ed. by Richard J. Schoeck and Jerome Taylor (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1960), pp. 63-83.

Describes the history of the mendicant orders and the rise of anti-fraternal criticism, demonstrating how Chaucer's Friar-pilgrim and the friar of the Summoner's Tale give "artistic form to the most important of the charges against the friars"--hypocrisy, abuse of confession, secular meddling, etc.

See also entries 252, 308, 313, 422, 429, 474.

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